The Exxon Valdez struck a reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling between 11 and 34 MILLION gallons of crude oil, ranking as the largest oil spill in U.S. history. More marine mammals and seabirds were killed directly by the oil than in any man-made disaster ever.
The incident prompted the 1990 Oil Pollution Act which called for tankers to be double-hulled, so that if the outer hull was damaged the inner hull would prevent oil from spilling out. Major spills dropped by 2/3’s since this law was passed.
The photo shows a portion of the oil-covered rock shoreline.