Sunday, June 30, 2013

June 30: Ernie Pyle Bill Passed

On this date in History .... June 30, 1944:

Congress passes Public Law 393 giving soldiers 50% more pay for combat service. This bill was also known as the Ernie Pyle Bill.  

Pyle, a famous war correspondent, born and raised in Indiana, had dropped out of Indiana University just one semester before graduating to work for an Indiana newspaper.  Within a few months, he was working for a Washington D.C. paper, lured by the extra pay of $2.50 per week.  

Pyle with the infantry
on Okinawa

As a war correspondent, he had pushed for extra combat pay for the infantry in his columns. Airmen already received flight pay, and Pyle, who traveled mostly with the infantry, believed these “underdogs of the military” should receive comparable “fight pay”. 

Saturday, June 29, 2013

June 29: Supreme Court rules on death penalty

On this date in History ..... June 29, 1972:

For the first time, the Supreme Court rules against the death penalty, in Furman v. Georgia, calling it “cruel and unusual punishment” as it was currently used, saying that states primarily used it in “arbitrary and capricious ways especially in regard to race.” However, the Court also suggested legislation that would make it constitutional again, such as guidelines for juries that were standardized as they applied to sentencing. 

As a result of this ruling over 600 prisoners had their death sentences lifted, including Charles Manson, and Richard Speck  (murdered 8 student nurses in Chicago 1966).  

Four years later, the Court acknowledged that progress in this regard had been made and reinstated the use of the death penalty. Gary Gilmore was the first to die under the new ruling, famous for his last words of “Let’s do it.”

June 28: Supreme Court rules on Muhammad Ali

On this date in History ... June 28, 1971:

The Supreme Court unanimously overturned the lower courts in “Clay vs. the United States” in boxer Muhammad Ali’s (Cassius Clay) refusal to be drafted.  Clay had refused, based on his conversion to Islam, to go to Vietnam and shoot people "who never called me nigga....."

Ali would go on to become the first and only 3-time lineal World Heavyweight Champion. He won an Olympic Gold Medal in 1960 (his amateur records was 100 wins with 5 losses). Legend has it that he threw the medal in the Ohio River after being refused service in a whites-only restaurant. He was presented with a replacement medal at the 1996 Olympics, where he lit the torch to start the games.  

In 1993, the Associated Press reported that Ali was tied with Babe Ruth as the most recognized athlete, out of over 800 dead or alive athletes, in America. The study found that over 97% of Americans over 12 years of age identified both Ali and Ruth.

Thursday, June 27, 2013

June 27: Smithsonian Institutionm

On this date in History .... June 27, 1829:

English scientist James Smithson dies in Italy, leaving an odd footnote in his will, saying that if his only nephew died without any heirs, his entire estate would go to “…the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge.”  

This sparked significant interest on both sides of the Atlantic, especially since Smithson had never visited the U.S.  Six years later, his only nephew did pass away without heirs and Pres. Jackson sent a diplomat to Europe to secure the funds. 

Today the Smithsonian consists of 19 museums and the National Air and Space Museum is the most visited museum in the world.  John Smithson in interred in a tomb in the Smithsonian Building.

Rotunda of the Museum of Natural History
Photo from William Beem Photography

Tuesday, June 25, 2013

June 26: Carole Lombard

On this date in History .... June 26, 1931:

Powell & Lombard, 1936
22-year old Carole Lombard, born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, marries 38-year old William Powell. 

Lombard, known as the “screwball of the silver screen” is probably best remembered for being the wife of Clark Gable. Her marriage to Powell only lasted a couple of years and she obtained a Carson City, Nevada divorce in 1933. It was called the “highest profile celebrity divorce in Carson City history.”  She married Clark Gable in 1939. 

Lombard died in a plane crash in 1942 outside of Las Vegas after doing a war bond rally in her home state of Indiana.

P.S.  Happy Birthday to my Aunt Libby, born June 26, 1931!!


Monday, June 24, 2013

June 25: Korean War Begins

On this date in History ... June 25, 1950:  

The Korean War begins when Communist North Korea invades South Korea, surprising the small So. Korean army and the small U.S. force stationed there.  

It was the first “hot” war of the Cold War and the first “limited war”, meaning the objective was not to defeat the enemy but was to just achieve a limited goal of protecting So. Korea. 

Hearing of the invasion, the U.S. rushed to get a United Nations resolution for military assistance. With the resolution secured, Truman dispatched U.S. military for what he called “a police action”. 

This new concept of war was frustrating for the American public who was used to total victory like they had recently experienced in WWII and who never really accepted or understood the concept of “limited” warfare. 

Sunday, June 23, 2013

June 24: Berlin Airlifts

On this date in History .... June 24, 1948:

The first serious crisis of the Cold War happened when the Soviets blockaded Berlin from the west, stopping the flow of supplies to the city. 

Berlin had been divided up between the U.S., Britain, France and the Soviet Union. The western allies had started consolidating their occupied zones into “a single independent German state.”  The USSR was not happy with the idea of a strong Germany, since they had been invaded twice by that country. 

Seven U.S. Air Force Douglas C-47 airplanes
unloading cargo at Tempelhof Airport,
Berlin, Germany during Operation Vittles
(Berlin Airlift).  Photo: U.S. Airforce
Imposing a blockade on West Berlin, cutting off all land/rail routes was described as “…. one of the most ruthless efforts in modern times to use mass starvation for political coercion... "  For almost a year, the Allies made 450 daily airlifts with food and supplies, preventing the over two million people from starving. 

The blockade actually backfired on the Soviets as the airlifts made the blockade moot and it provoked a real fear of war in the West.  Eleven months later, Stalin lifted the blockade.

Newsreel clip:

Saturday, June 22, 2013

June 22: Circus Train Disaster

On this date in HIstory ...., June 22, 1918:

photo courtesy of
A train engineer fell asleep and caused his 20-car military transport train to run into the caboose of a 26-car circus train that was stopped to check a problem near Hammond, Indiana. 

The collision split the first five circus train cars in half. The sleeping engineer had missed two automatic signals and warnings posted by the circus train brakeman. The investigation was very critical of the wooden cars, citing oil lamps that contributed to the deathly fire.

The circus only had to cancel two performances and made the rest of their engagements because competitors Ringling and Barnum and Bailey contributed needed equipment and performers so that the show could go on.

Most of the 86 who died perished inside of the first 35 seconds of the collision. Then the train cause fire and those who died by fire were burned beyond recognition and were buried in Showman’s Rest in Illinois, where many of the graves are marked with identifiers such as “Unknown Male”, “Unknown Female”, and even “4-Horse Driver”. Many performers were known only by their nickname and that is how the grave is marked, such as the one marked “Baldy June 22, 1918”.  

mass grave burial

Those who could not be identified were buried in a mass grave.

Monuments of elephants with lowered trunks, a sign of mourning, surrounds the burial site.

Thursday, June 20, 2013

June 21: Texas v. Johnson / Flag Burning

On this date in History .... June 21, 1989:

The Supreme Court decides Texas v. Johnson that flag burning was free speech and protected under the first amendment.  Richmond, Indiana native Gregory Lee Johnson, a member of the Revolutionary Communist Youth Brigade, was part of a demonstration at the 1984 Republican Convention in Dallas. When he poured kerosene on the flag and set it ablaze, he was charged with a Texas law of prohibits vandalizing respected objects (desecration of a venerated object).

One witness, Daniel E. Walker, a West Point graduate, received international attention when he collected the burned remains of the flag and buried them according to military protocol in his backyard. Following the incident, Walker received the Army’s highest civilian award and a letter of commendation from U.S. President Ronald W. Reagan.  Walker died in 2009 at the age of 81.

An eyewitness to the event tells this story:
"Just a few feet away from me an American flag  had been set on fire and was being held high by a young man to a combination of boos and cheers of approval. He was tackled to the ground almost immediately and an older guy who looked really out of place with the rest of the crowd took the flag away from him and began stomping on it in an attempt to put out the flames and then carried it off."        

Attorney William Kunstler and Greg Johnson
Johnson appealed his conviction one year in prison and $2000 fine to the Supreme Court. In a controversial 5-4 decision, the Court found his actions protected as free speech. The decision invalidated laws in 48 of the 50 states. Congress has tried to pass a law prohibiting flag burning a number of times but the bill fails to pass the Senate each time. 

Johnson spent his entire life involved in protests and demonstrations, eventually becoming the national spokesman for the Communist Youth Brigade. In 2011, he was arrested in California for protesting in support of a hunger strike by the Pelican State Prison inmates.  

June 20: Reagan give Wynette big kiss

On this date in History ... June 20, 1983:

Ronald Reagan gives a speech at a Republican Fundraising Dinner in the (Jackson) Mississippi Coliseum where he tells one of his many humorous stories, this one about a Republican campaigning in Democratic territory. (see clip). Reagan is said to have been a big fan of Tammy Wynette who sang at this fundraiser. The President gave the country singer a big kiss, and a photo of it ended up in The Globe.

Wednesday, June 19, 2013

June 19: Mary Todd Lincoln declared sane

On this date in History .... June 19, 1875:

Mary Todd Lincoln was declared sane. 

She had been committed to the Bellevue Insane Asylum in 1875 and made two suicide attempts the day that verdict was made.  Myra Bradwell, one of the country's first women lawyers, believed Lincoln to be sane and filed an appeal on her behalf citing that Lincoln was being held against her will.  

After the courts found in favor of Mrs. Lincoln, she moved to France for four years before returning to the U.S. to live with her sister. She died two years later.


June 18: Slave Owner Sues for Property

On this date in History ... June 18, 1825: 

Samuel Todd of Kentucky sued William Bulla and Bulla's father-in-law, Andrew Hoover,  both from Wayne County, Indiana, for $500.00 each for loss of property. Todd accused the men of helping his slave Peter escape. 

Peter fled Kentucky in August of 1821 and came to Indiana. He was found in 1825 just north of Richmond, a town on the Indiana/Ohio state line, and had changed his name to George Stellow. While the slave hunter went to the Justice of the Peace, asking him to approve Peter’s removal back to Kentucky, a group of people broke Peter out of jail with “bodily force and violence”.  

With Peter was gone, Todd had no other recourse and he sued Bulla and Hoover, who he believed to be responsible for the loss of property. The judge ordered both men to pay the plaintiff to recover his own debt and costs, a total of $1,500.00.  The lawsuit was handled in federal court because of "Diversity of Citizenship", that is when a person from one state sued a person in another state, the issues was moved to a federal court so that one's own state wouldn't have a biased ruling.

While the information does not specify exactly where "north of Richmond" might be, we might speculate that it could be a tiny town of Newport (today named "Fountain City"), Indiana.  In 1826, Levi Coffin and his wife Catherine moved to Newport and built their home and business.  Coffin would eventually become known as the Grand Master Conductor of the Underground Railroad.  For Peter to live a number of years in this Quaker, abolitionist area is not surprising.

However, William Hoover is reported to have lived near the "middle fork" of the Whitewater RIver less than two miles north of Richmond.  Today, Richmond's water is supplied by the Middlefork Reservoir.

Source for this article:


Monday, June 17, 2013

June 17: Truman Halts Investigation

On this date in History.... June 17, 1943:

Sen. Harry Truman is asked not to investigate a suspicious war plant in Washington State. 

Truman was chairing a committee on possible war profiteering when this plant caught his attention. FDR’s Secretary of War, Harry Stimson, was one of the very VERY few who knew this plant was secretly involved in activities connected to the Manhattan Project. When asked to curb the investigation with no real explanation given, Truman, who was described as “a veteran and a patriot”, told Stimson to “say no more”, and the inquiry stopped.  

It was only after FDR’s death and Truman became President did he find out the nature of the Manhattan Project.

Sunday, June 16, 2013

June 16: Mario Andretti

Andretti: winning the 1969
Indy 500 race. Photo
courtesy of
On this date in History .... June 16, 1955: 

The Italian ocean liner, Conte Biancamano, arrived in New York harbor with 15 yr old Mario Andretti & family aboard.  Andretti became one of the greatest race drivers in the world, becoming the only man to win all of the following races:

·         the Formula One World Championship,
·         the US Nat’l Championship (1965, 1966, 1969, 1984),
·         the Indianapolis “Indy” 500,
·         the Daytona 500,
·         the 24 Hours of Daytona,
·         the 12 Hours of Sebring (1967, 1970, 1972) &
·         the Pikes Peak Internat’l Hill Club. 

Mario Andretti won the last of his 52 Indy Car victories in 1993. He officially retired from racing in 1994, having competed in 407 Indy Car events.

Friday, June 14, 2013

June 15: Bessie Coleman

On this date in History .... June 15, 1921:

Bessie Coleman became the first African American woman to earn an aviator’s license and the first American of any race or gender to receive an International Aviation License. 

No one in the U.S. would teach her to fly because she was (a) a woman and (b) black so she had to go to France for lessons.  She became a “barnstormer” show pilot and an immediate media sensation when she returned to the U.S.  She encouraged other African Americans to learn to fly but refused to perform at locations that would not admit those of her race.

Photo courtesy of 
She was invited as a guest of honor to attend the all-black musical ‘Shuffle Along.’ The entire audience, including the several hundred whites in the orchestra seats, rose to give the first African American female pilot a standing ovation.” (quote source:  

Coleman died in a plane accident at the age of 34 when an unsecured wrench got caught in the control gears and she fell to her death. For a number of years, starting in 1931, Chicago pilots had an annual fly-over of her grave. 


Thursday, June 13, 2013

June 14: Ellis Island Burns

On this date in History .... June 14, 1897: 

A fire at Ellis Island burned the immigration station to the ground, destroying immigration records going back to 1855. The pine building was no protection against the raging fire.  The U.S. Treasury ordered the center rebuilt but with one condition: all buildings, then and in the future, will be built fireproof. 

The new building opened in December 1900 and over 2200 new immigrants stepped onto the shores of the U.S. that day.

Wednesday, June 12, 2013

June 13: Thurgood Marshall

On this date in History .... June 13, 1967:

Lyndon Johnson nominated Thurgood Marshall for the U.S. Supreme Court.  

Marshall was confirmed by Congress 69-11 and sworn in on August 30, making him the first African-American to sit on the Supreme Court. 

The great-grandson of slaves, he became an attorney and argued cases before the Supreme Court, winning 29 of them, including the ground breaking Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. 

He served 24 years on the Court.


June 12: Interracial Marriage Now Legal

On this date in History ..... June 12, 1967:

The Supreme Court overturned the conviction of Loving v. Virginia making it illegal to ban interracial marriage. 

In addition to being guilty of an interracial marriage, Mildred and Richard Loving were also guilty of violation of Virginia law of interracial couples marrying in another state (Wash DC) and moving back to Virginia. 

Law enforcement stormed into their bedroom, shined lights in their eyes and hauled them off to jail.  They were told they could avoid the one year in prison if they left the state and never returned.  The couple decided to fight it and took it all the way to the Supreme Court.

Nine years later, the Supreme Court concluded that anti-miscegenation laws were racist and had been enacted to perpetuate white supremacy: “….The fact that Virginia prohibits only interracial marriages involving WHITE persons demonstrates that the racial classifications must stand on their own justification, as measures designed to maintain White Supremacy.” 

Despite this Supreme Court ruling, such laws remained on the books, although unenforceable, in several states until 2000, when Alabama became the last state to repeal its law against mixed-race marriage.

Tuesday, June 11, 2013

June 11: Escape from Alcatraz

On this date in History .. June 11, 1962:

A prison escape that inspired the Clint Eastwood movie “Escape from Alcatraz” occurred today when John & Clarence Anglin, and Frank Morris “attempted” to escape from the prison known as “The Rock”. The 3 were assumed to have died in the choppy ice cold waters but their bodies were never found.  In 14 escape attempts, 36 inmates tried to leave the prison.  All were re-captured or confirmed killed with the exception of these 3 men.

CLICK HERE  for a clip of the Clint Eastwood movie trailer.

Here is a newsreel of the actual escape......

June 10: Bridget Bishop Executed in Salem

On this date in History ..... June 10, 1692: 

Bridget Bishop became the first person hanged for witchcraft in The Salem Witch Trials. She was accused of witchcraft by more individuals than any other defendant. 

The self-assertive Bishop, known around town for her dubious moral character, frequented taverns, dressed flamboyantly (by Puritan standards), and was married three times. She did not personify the stereotypical submissive wife and many found this intimidating and threatening.  Her flamboyant dress was comprised of black cap and hat and a red bodice that was “bordered and looped with different colors”.  It was these actions that seemed to target her for accusations of witchcraft than any actual witchcraft. 

She professed her innocence but was found guilty and executed by hanging. Thirteen more women and five men from all stations of life followed her to the gallows, and one man, Giles Corey, was executed by crushing.

A person could not be tried unless they offered a plea and Corey refused to plead.  To avoid persons just getting out of being tried, the technique of pressing was used to encourage them to plead.  Corey was stripped naked and laid in a shallow pit with boards laid across his chest and stomach.  Boulders were then placed on the boards.  After two days of this painful torture, Corey was again asked to plead.  He responded “More weight.”  It is said that when his tongue bulged out of his mouth from the crushing weight, the sheriff used a cane and stuffed it back into his mouth.

Corey finally cried out one more “More weight!” and died, just after offering a curse on the town of Salem and its inhabitants.

Sunday, June 9, 2013

June 9: Johnson and the Domino Theory

On this date in History .... June 9, 1964:

Johnson ignores a CIA report that challenges the domino theory.  

The “domino theory” was a product of the Cold War and justified the U.S. involvement in helping smaller countries avoid communism. It was a belief that if one country fell to communism, then surrounding countries would “fall like dominoes”.  The CIA report stated that Cambodia would be the only country to fall immediately but even if Vietnam and Laos fell to Communism, there were enough American Allies in the Pacific to dissuade N. Vietnam and China from aggression.  

Johnson, who held strongly to the domino theory, chose to ignore this report, eventually committing over 500,000 troops to Vietnam to try to thwart the spread of Communism.

June 8: Ghostbusters!

On this date in History .... June 8, 1984:

The movie “Ghostbusters” is released.

The story was written for John Belushi who died in 1982. It was then “rewritten extensively to accommodate the unique talents of Bill Murray”.  With a huge $30 million production budget, it became the 2nd highest grossing movie with $229 million, being barely beat out by “Beverly Hills Cop” which grossed $235 million.  

Ray Parker Jr’s theme song (click HERE for video) stayed at #1 for 3 weeks and gave birth to catchphrases of “I ain’t afraid of no ghosts!” and “Who you gonna call?”

June 7: King George VI visits U.S.

On this date in history ... June 7, 1939:

King George VI becomes the first British monarch to visit the U.S. 

FDR’s invitation to the royal couple did not go unnoticed as no reigning British Monarch had ever set foot on American soil, not even in colonial times.  With Europe poised on the brink of war, Franklin Roosevelt realized the necessity of building a closer relationship between the two countries.

In addition to hosting a White House state dinner, the Roosevelts also hosted a picnic style luncheon at their home in Hyde Park (NY) where FDR’s mother was “horrified” that the King and Queen were served hot dogs on the front porch!  

George VI at the picnic at Top Cottage, seated with Sara Delano Roosevelt (FDR's mother, right), New York Governor Herbert Lehman, and Elinor Morgenthau (wife of Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr., left), June 11, 1939, Hyde Park, NY. (FDR Library)

Thursday, June 6, 2013

June 6: D-Day & Theodore Roosevelt Jr.

On this date in History .... June 6, 1944:

The day after General Eisenhower gave the order to commence Operation Overlord, which would become known as "D-Day", and would become the largest amphibious military operation in history. Some of the numbers of the day include:

  • 6000 ships and landing crafts, carrying ....
  • 176,000 troops
  • 822 aircraft that would drop parachutists in Normandy
  • 13,000 additional aircraft to provide cover and air support.
Hitler believed the invasion was a fake and a diversion and refused to release German troops to the area. 

Theodore Roosevelt Jr., the eldest son of Theodore and Edith Roosevelt, was the only general on D-Day to land by sea with the first wave of troops. He would be the oldest man involved in the invasion (age 56) and the only man to serve with his son on D-Day at Normandy. 

He heard the first wave landing craft had drifted more than a mile off target.  Armed with only a pistol, he took off walking with his cane to find the causeways to be used as an inland landing point. He then returned to the commanders and shared the information, coordinating the attack.  His famous words at this point were, "We'll start the war from right here!"

Roosevelt died a month later of a heart attack in his tent.  He was buried in the American cemetery in Normandy.  

His Medal of Honor Citation reads:

"Citation: for gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 6 June 1944, in France. After 2 verbal requests to accompany the leading assault elements in the Normandy invasion had been denied, Brig. Gen. Roosevelt's written request for this mission was approved and he landed with the first wave of the forces assaulting the enemy-held beaches. He repeatedly led groups from the beach, over the seawall and established them inland. His valor, courage, and presence in the very front of the attack and his complete unconcern at being under heavy fire inspired the troops to heights of enthusiasm and self-sacrifice. 

Although the enemy had the beach under constant direct fire, Brig. Gen. Roosevelt moved from one locality to another, rallying men around him, directed and personally led them against the enemy.  Under his seasoned, precise, calm, and unfaltering leadership, assault troops reduced beach strong points and rapidly moved inland with minimum casualties. He thus contributed substantially to the successful establishment of the beachhead in France."

Wednesday, June 5, 2013

June 5: Bobby Kennedy Shot

On this date in History ... June 5, 1968:

Bobby Kennedy is shot during a campaign. 

He had just won the California primary and was the heir-apparent to the Democratic Nomination for President, to run against Richard Nixon. Roosevelt "Rosy" Grier, a star football player, was one of Kennedy's bodyguards and tackled the assassin, Sirhan Sirhan, wrestling him to the ground. Other bystanders were injured while Sirhan was being grabbed. 

Hubert Humphrey ended up on the Democratic ticket, losing by a small margin to Nixon.

Tuesday, June 4, 2013

June 4: "Tank Man"

On this date in History .... June 4, 1989 (it was June 4 in the U.S. and June 5 in Beijing):

A young man became an icon of bravery when he stood in front of tanks in Tiananmen Square and stopped them in their tracks, and then climbed on top of the lead tank, waving his arms as if to “Shoo!” them away. His identity was never discovered and he was dubbed “Tank Man”.  After climbing on top of the tank, the brave Tank Man was whisked away by a group of people, never to be seen again.

This photo was taken by photographer Jeff Widener the day after the Tiananmen Square Massacre, and got him named as a finalist in the 1990 Pulitzer Awards. Jeff was surprised the photo even turned out. He had run out of film and sent a student to find more. The student returned a couple of hours later with a roll of Fuji 100 ISO film that he had gotten from a tourist.  Those who know anything about film and photography know that ISO 100 film is not the greatest quality at all. Two of the three photos turned out blurry.

Even though the photo was banned in China, it is one of the most widely circulated photos in the world.  Here is a video of the scene:


Monday, June 3, 2013

June 3: Corning Glass Works vs. Brennan

On this date in History ... June 3, 1974:

The Supreme Court rules in Corning Glass Works vs. Brennan

Corning’s inspectors during the day shift were women but the company wanted to start a night shift inspector position. At the time, NY and PA law prohibited women from working nights. Since the inspector position had traditionally been held by women, men viewed it as “women’s work” and refused to take the night job. Corning argued that ‘market forces’ required them to pay men more to get them to take what they viewed as inferior (women’s) work. 

Corning tried to defend its pay policy by claiming it was a shift differential pay.  But they still only hired men for the night shift, denying women the opportunity for the higher pay.

The Court rejected the argument, recognizing that the company was still paying men and women different wages for the same work, illegal under the Equal Pay Act of 1963, and that just because men wouldn’t work for “women’s pay”, didn’t mean it was ok to pay men more for the same job.

Sources for this article include The U.S. Supreme Court Center, i.e. 


Sunday, June 2, 2013

June 2: Francis Folsom Cleveland

On this date in History ... June 2, 1886:

21-year old Frances Folsom marries 49-year old President Grover Cleveland in the White House, becoming the only president and first lady to be wed in the White House and making her the youngest first lady (a record previously held by 24-year old Julia Gardiner when she married 54 year old President Tyler in 1844).  

She was the only First Lady to be wed and to give birth in the White House. 

When Cleveland was elected back to the presidency after a four-year gap, she became the only first lady to return to the White House. When Cleveland died in 1908, Frances became the first presidential widow to remarry (in 1913). 

At her death in 1947, she had lived longer after leaving the White House than any other former first lady. 


June 1: Senator Margaret Chase

On this date in History ... June 1, 1950:

Senator Margaret Chase Smith became the first Senator to denounce McCarthy’s anti-communist tactics.

Following her "Declaration of Conscience" speech, some pundits speculated that she might be the Vice Presidential candidate on the 1952 Republican ticket. She had other ambitions & became the first woman to have her name placed in nomination for the presidency by either of the two major parties. In the final balloting, Smith refused to withdraw and came in second to the Republican nominee, Barry Goldwater.

She had served four terms in the House, then won election to the Senate in 1948, becoming the first woman elected to both houses of Congress.